Water treatment options

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Water treatment options

Post by TacAir » Sat Jan 11, 2020 2:04 pm

I've written 12 part addendum for use with my World of the Chernyi series. I'm not completely happy with the full document as the FAK part still needs some work. However, Chapter One, Water may be ionterest...


Chapter One
Water


"Without the taste of water, cool water. Old Dan and I with throats burned dry. And souls that cry for water. Cool, clear, water." Sons of the Pioneers.
A person can live without water for about three days, after that, you face a slow and painful death. Not just any water will do, it must be clean and free of pathogenic organisms to be of use to humans. As I noted in the overview, bad water has killed more people than all the wars in modern times.

How much water do you need each day?

You need at least two liters of clean water per person per day, minimum, just to stay alive. If you are traveling or working, plan on at least one gallon per person, per day. For working in hot or hot and humid weather, plan on at least five gallons per person, per day.

Where do I find water? What are good sources for water? Is some water too dangerous to use?
I'll cover this in two parts - urban water sources and water sources you might find in areas away from the city.

What is urban water?

Urban surface water is generally not safe to drink without serious and technically complex treatment. By this, I mean streams flowing through developed areas, lakes, ponds or other water catchments. Fountain basins for example, that may be found in or near urban areas are not a good source of water. These sources of water normally contain a wild variety of contaminants. These contaminates range from animal fecal matter and human sewage to heavy metals, petroleum products or pesticides. For this reason, most 'public' sources of surface water are not safe for consumption. Even boiled, they are too problematic to consider due to the wide range of contaminants.

Are there any urban surface water sources that I could use?
Some surface water may be used, but only with treatment. Privately owned swimming pools, that you know have been well maintained and have no external contamination sources, such as runoff from adjoining land, may be safe to drink after minimal treatment.
Rainwater collected from rooftops may not be suitable for use owing to contamination from the roofing materials, debris or other contaminates present on the rooftop. However, rainwater collected using known clean surfaces, like your tarp and then stored in clean containers is an excellent source of drinking water.
Water collected from hot water tanks, the toilet tank or other internal building water storage areas may be safe to drink with minimal treatment.
Please note that unless you are certain the water is from a potable source, do not consume the water without treatment.

Even if you are outside of developed or urban areas, surface water is still likely contaminated, but these contaminates are normally within your ability to treat with the simple resources available to you in a disaster. Animal or human waste is still a concern, as are pesticides, but are usually in low enough concentrations to allow treatment with commonly available methods.
Running springs, where you can find the source, and steams fed by springs are two good sources of water. Many springs on public land have been safety tested; these are normally posted by the agency or person who performed the test.
Clear, free running streams generally make a good water source, as do small ponds fed by running streams. Again, unless you know the source to be tested and deemed potable by a reputable health authority, treat the water before you consume it!
Any well water, urban or rural, should be treated unless you know of recent testing showing the water to be potable.

Brackish water, salt water and water with high levels of alkaline as is often found in the Southwest U.S. requires specialized water treatment systems to render the water safe to consume. These reverse osmosis systems are beyond the scope of this series.

Can you safely gather water? Yes, for example, in one of my other books, "Tales of the Chërnyi", the character Steven Stone gathers water by putting his empty water bottles under the edge of his shelter tarp, capturing the rain runoff for ready to drink water. You can do the same.

Okay, I've found a source and gathered the water. How do I store the water? What makes a good storage container?
Storage of treated and untreated water must be separate. It does you no good to put treated water into a container that's held untreated water, so marking your containers is strongly suggested. Use a P for potable and a D for dirty, for example. Another possibility is clear and colored soda bottles. Use clear bottles for potable, colored for water that has not been treated. You get the idea, make it simple for yourself.
A good container has a wide mouth, a good, leak-proof cap and is of a size that is easy to handle, depending on your location. By this I mean that a one quart container is easier to carry in your backpack, where a five gallon bucket or purpose built container is a good choice for a fixed location where you or your family may decide to stay. Remember, at eight pounds to the gallon, any container over one gallon is going to be difficult to carry for any distance.

How can I treat water to make it safe to drink?
Water treatment and purification can use one of several methods. These treatments are broadly defined as:
Chemical treatment. This method uses chlorine dioxide, unscented bleach (sodium hypochlorite), iodine, or calcium hypochlorite to make water potable. While there are other chemicals, they are normally limited to professional applications.
Heat. Pasteurization of water using heat to boil the water is a simple and well known process.
Filtering in conjunction with chemical use or purifying with an advanced filter system offers a good choice as well.

Before I go further, I have a couple of important notes.
Iodine - The Department of Soil, Water, and Environmental Science, University of Arizona, tested iodine treatment for efficacy in water contaminated with Cryptosporidium oocysts. They found that just 10% were inactivated after a 20-minute exposure to iodine used according to manufacturer's instructions. Even after 240 minutes of exposure to iodine only 66-81% oocysts were inactivated. These data strongly suggest that iodine disinfection is not effective in inactivating Cryptosporidium oocysts in water. Because this organism is common in all surface waters, it is recommended that another method of treatment be used before ingestion. Iodine is effective against viruses common to surface water.
Commercial bleach - Bleach (sodium hypochlorite) 5+% or 6% by volume, like you buy in the grocery store, degrades fairly quickly into salty water. Use only new or nearly new bleach to treat water! DO NOT store drinking water in bleach bottles.

How do I use chlorine dioxide tablets?
Always follow package directions!
These tablets are a shelf-life item. Check expirations dates twice yearly and follow vendor recommendations for time of treatment, usually a minimum of four (4) hours before consumption. Usually the product is used as one tablet per liter of water, more if water is very cold or cloudy (turbid). One brand of this product, Chlor-floc, contains a floccant to remove via settling, silt and other debris in turbid water.
It's worth repeating - Following label directions is vial for correct treatment.

How do I safely use unscented bleach (sodium hypochlorite)?

For products with 4% to 6% of chlorine by volume, the EPA recommends treating water by putting the water in a clean container and adding 8 drops (1/8 teaspoon) of bleach for every gallon of water.
Stir as you add the bleach and then let the water stand for at least 30 minutes. If after 30 minutes, the water does not have a residual smell of bleach, repeat the dosage of 8 drops per gallon and let it sit for another 15 minutes. If no smell is present, discard the water.
For smaller containers, use 4 drops per 2 liter soda bottle or 2 drops for a 1 liter bottle, but only if the water is clear.

How do I use my iodine tablets?
First, was the container holding the tablets sealed and within the expiration date? If not, discard the tablets.
If the bottle is open and was opened more than three months ago, discard the tablets.
If the bottle is sealed and within the expiration period, follow label directions for use. As noted above, iodine is not completely effective on certain protozoa. Iodine used in conjunction with an appropriate filter can render the water safe to drink. See the filter section for a discussion of filter pore size.
(Iodine is no longer sold in the EU for water treatment, pure iodine crystals have been banned in the U.S.)

What is calcium hypochlorite?
Calcium hypochlorite is a dry chemical sold for pool water treatment. It can be found in most 'big box stores' and stores that sell pool supplies.
Read the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) BEFORE you purchase or store this dry chemical.
Calcium hypochlorite is a strong oxidizer, it will cause corrosion of metal. It is an "energetic reactor" which is to say, mixing with any number of materials will cause a reaction, usually violent. It will also burn if the storage container is set alight.
While the material is, by its very nature quite dangerous, it does offer some benefits. First, it offers a longer shelf life than other common water treatment chemicals. Second, simply put, is density. For the same storage space, it will treat more water per volume than other choices. Last, for what it does, the price is reasonable.

How do I use calcium hypochlorite to make waster safe to drink?
The US EPA guidelines are --(http://water.epa.gov/aboutow/ogwdw/uplo ... r-2006.pdf)
Add and dissolve one heaping teaspoon of high-test granular calcium hypochlorite (approximately ¼ ounce) for each two gallons of water, or 5 milliliters (approximately 7 grams) per 7.5 liters of water.
This mixture will produce a stock chlorine solution of approximately 500 milligrams per liter, since the calcium hypochlorite has available chlorine equal to 70 percent of its weight. This is now the solution you will use to treat your water.

To disinfect water, add the chlorine solution in the ratio of one part of chlorine solution to each 100 parts of water to be treated.
This is roughly equal to adding 1 pint (16 ounces) of stock chlorine to each 12.5 gallons of water or (approximately ½ liter to 50 liters of water) to be disinfected. To remove any objectionable chlorine odor, aerate the disinfected water by pouring it back and forth from one clean container to another.
If you choose to store and use this chemical, please obtain accurate measurement devices.

Okay, I'll just boil my water, how long do I need to boil it?
Bringing water to a boil (large bubbles roiling from bottom of container) and holding that boil for at least one minute, then allowing the water to cool is one method to ensure the water is safe to drink. Boiling kills both protozoa, like Giardia lamblia and cryptosporidium (Phylum Apicomplexa) as well as viruses that pose a heath risk. Boiling DOES NOT remove other contaminates, such as pesticides, hydrocarbons or antifreeze. Ensure your source is free of these types of contaminates before treatment by boiling.

I want to buy a filter, which one is the best? How can I tell what product is a filter and what device is a purifier?
There are many filters on the market. Generally, the price varies on how fine or small a contaminant the product will filter from the water. This is called pore size - generally, the smaller the pore size, the more expensive the product.
First, let's look at the difference between a backpacking water filter and a backpacking water purifier. Then I'll explain why you might opt for buying one over another. I say backpacking due to size differences in other filter systems.

Putting it in the simplest terms, a water filter removes protozoa and parasites, perhaps even some bacteria, but it does not remove viruses. This ability to filter is, again, a function of the filter pore size. It's that "micron" thing you see in the ads. These filters must be used with chemical treatment to provide safe water.
A water purifier eliminates all of these biological contaminates, plus viruses. In fact, the Environmental Protection Agency has set standards that require water purifiers to eliminate a percentage of all viruses. IF the device is a purifier, it will normally be registered with the EPA.

Chemical contaminants are another story and there is no easy or sure way to remove them. Carbon block filters do a good job of reducing rather than removing chemicals from the water, but cleaning up the horror of urban water is not gong to be done by a simple, handheld 'filter'. As with many things in life, you get what you pay for - a cheap filter will provide water that may not be safe to drink.

Let's spend a bit more time on this. Advertisements spend a lot of time on the whole 'log' thing - so what does it mean?
There are two different EPA classification standards for water treatment devices.
The first classification is for a water filter, meeting this standard requires a water treatment device to demonstrate removal of at least 99.99% of pathogenic agents / bacteria. This is known in the water filter industry as a log 4 reduction.
The most common pathogenic organism cited in filtering ads?
- E-Coli
- Giardia
- Cryptosporidium
A filter does nothing about viruses in the water.

The second classification is a water purifier. To meet this standard, a water treatment device must remove at least 99.9999% of pathogenic bacteria (log 6 reduction). In addition the water purifier must be capable of reducing viruses by at least 99.999% (log 5 reduction).
Given that viruses are generally measured in fractions of a micron, that's quite a feat.
We are talking very small here -
-viruses (0.01 microns);
-bacteria (0.1 micron) and
-protozoa (1 micron).
Most purifiers use an internal carbon block filter with iodine or silver embedded in some kind of matrix. Others actually have pore sizes on the 0.1 to 0.02 micron range. Expect to pay more for these higher quality products.

Someone told me I need to pre-filter my water. Why is that?
Pre-filtering is a good idea. If your water is turbid (cloudy or muddy), you really should pre-filter. You can run your water through a bandana, a coffee filter or even your old socks to remove the mud, leaves, plant matter, bugs and debris often found in even running water. Silt and mud in the water requires additional chemical treatment and the suspended matter will quickly clog a good quality filter. So, taking the time to pre-filter your water will yield best results and extend the service life of your filter/purifier.
Mud and silt may also be removed through floccation; that is - adding a chemical that causes the material to clump and sink to the bottom of the container

I hear I can use the sun to purify my water - is that true?"
Yes, you can use the sun. Called SODIS for SOlar water DISinfection. Simply place your non-turbid water in clear PET bottles out in the full sun for at least 6 hours. The solar UV radiation and heat will kill pathogenic agents in the water. This is best done in the southern tier U.S. - where the sun's UV rays are not as attenuated by the atmosphere, clouds or a low radiation angle.

What about the UV light pens - are they any good?

There are several products that generate UV light to purify clear water. I don't recommend them solely because of the need for batteries.

How do I best transport my water?

Water weighs eight pounds per gallon. Any clean contain may be used, but give consideration to weight and ease of handling. I usually recommend the common one or two liter soda bottle as it is both very inexpensive and rugged. There are carriers made to transport the bottles that may be obtained for the asking. Old style military canteens, sport drink bottles and iced tea bottles are all examples of good storage containers. Gallon, two and a half or five gallon water containers found in the grocery store make poor containers as they quickly become brittle and may leak at the seams. Purpose built containers, like the WaterCube boxed water or the Reliance brand Cube containers are good examples of the many products on the market today.

Capstone project items -
Containers for up to four gallons of water (One gallon if you have access to water)
Water treatment tablets
Filtering system, both pre-filter and primary filter.

Expense items:
24 Chlorine dioxide tablets $10.00
Soda bottles $0.00
1 gallon ZippLock storage bag $0.20 (x 2)
Bandana and coffee filters $0.00 I'll call these found items)

Possible filter option -
Sawyer Squeeze - filters out down to 0.1 microns. Water will still need treatment for possible virus contamination. Attaches to common 20mm bottle - most soda and water bottles have a 20mm neck.
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Re: Water treatment options

Post by JeeperCreeper » Sat Jan 11, 2020 2:50 pm

Nice! Good write up!
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Re: Water treatment options

Post by MPMalloy » Mon Jan 13, 2020 3:38 am

Awesome!! :clap:

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Re: Water treatment options

Post by PistolPete » Mon Jan 13, 2020 5:47 pm

Thanks for putting that together!
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Re: Water treatment options

Post by majorhavoc » Thu Feb 13, 2020 11:40 am

Excellent write up!

Not really an addition so much an observation/point of discussion: There are several off-brand products claiming to be water filters. They're available on Amazon, eBay and other outlets. They are clearly designed to look just like Lifestraws or name brand pump/squeeze filters, claim to have similar capabilities but sell for considerably less.

It's just possible that some of these products work as advertised. User reviews often claim they work just as well as the real thing. But I 100% absolutely DO NOT understand why anyone in their right mind would rely on them. Unlike companies like Lifestraw, Katadyn, Sawyer and MSR, these unknown companies are not staking their reputations on the quality/efficacy of their products. And they never seem to have any documented certification or independent testing results to back up their claims.

More to the point, if you buy and use these products, you will never truly know if they're working as promised (unless you get sick and die, of course). Conclusively proving a negative is one of the most difficult things to do. So not getting sick after using them tells you very little about whether they actually protected you from contaminated water, or if the water wasn't badly contaminated in the first place, or if you just got lucky.

I'm all about saving money and am not at all wedded to brand names for a lot of product types. But off brand filters? I think they're a bone-headed idea and a false economy.

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Re: Water treatment options

Post by MacWa77ace » Thu Feb 13, 2020 2:12 pm

TacAir wrote:
Sat Jan 11, 2020 2:04 pm


"Without the taste of water, cool water. Old Dan and I with throats burned dry. And souls that cry for water. Cool, clear, water." Sons of the Pioneers.
Speak of the Devil. Marty Robbin's version in Gunfighter Ballads track 2 is where i first heard it. Originally vinyl then Converted to cassette, which for some reason i have here in my desk drawer right now. [Side 2 is 'The Monkeys' on that cassette LOL]

Image

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DESALINIZATION DIY system build info
https://waterfilteronly.com/portable-desalination/

Calcium hypochlorite question

I mainly have 1 gallon and 5 gallon containers so i'm doing math conversion to 1 gallon from 2 and 12.5 per your examples.

Is one level teaspoon then equal to 1/8 oz [as opposed to heaping = 1/4 oz] which 1/8 oz would be the appropriate dry amount of Ca(OCl)2 for 1 gallon?

Then 1 oz of that solution per 1 gallon of water to be treated would be the correct number?

is my math correct? I usually have a lot of calcium hypochlorite around so that's why I'm asking.

And separate question regarding technique:
If you can't smell the chlorine after treating the water, does that mean that there isn't any free chlorine left after treatment and that it was all used up to kill the bacteria? And maybe not all the bacteria was killed.
So after 2 doses and you still can't smell it, does that means the water is too contaminated to be treated by chlorine?
Why can't you keep adding chlorine?
Does that mean that the water source is no good at all then, and we should find another source? Whats the detail on this?
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Re: Water treatment options

Post by MPMalloy » Thu Feb 13, 2020 8:23 pm

MacWa77ace wrote:
Thu Feb 13, 2020 2:12 pm
TacAir wrote:
Sat Jan 11, 2020 2:04 pm
"Without the taste of water, cool water. Old Dan and I with throats burned dry. And souls that cry for water. Cool, clear, water." Sons of the Pioneers.
Speak of the Devil. Marty Robbin's version in Gunfighter Ballads track 2 is where i first heard it. Originally vinyl then Converted to cassette, which for some reason i have here in my desk drawer right now. [Side 2 is 'The Monkeys' on that cassette LOL]Image

Image

DESALINIZATION DIY system build info: https://waterfilteronly.com/portable-desalination/

Calcium hypochlorite question

I mainly have 1 gallon and 5 gallon containers so i'm doing math conversion to 1 gallon from 2 and 12.5 per your examples.

Is one level teaspoon then equal to 1/8 oz [as opposed to heaping = 1/4 oz] which 1/8 oz would be the appropriate dry amount of Ca(OCl)2 for 1 gallon?

Then 1 oz of that solution per 1 gallon of water to be treated would be the correct number?

is my math correct? I usually have a lot of calcium hypochlorite around so that's why I'm asking.

And separate question regarding technique:
If you can't smell the chlorine after treating the water, does that mean that there isn't any free chlorine left after treatment and that it was all used up to kill the bacteria? And maybe not all the bacteria was killed.

So after 2 doses and you still can't smell it, does that means the water is too contaminated to be treated by chlorine?
Why can't you keep adding chlorine?

Does that mean that the water source is no good at all then, and we should find another source? What's the detail on this?
Inquiring minds want to know :D

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Re: Water treatment options

Post by TacAir » Sat Feb 15, 2020 1:42 pm

majorhavoc wrote:
Thu Feb 13, 2020 11:40 am
Excellent write up!

Not really an addition so much an observation/point of discussion: There are several off-brand products claiming to be water filters. They're available on Amazon, eBay and other outlets. They are clearly designed to look just like Lifestraws or name brand pump/squeeze filters, claim to have similar capabilities but sell for considerably less.

It's just possible that some of these products work as advertised. User reviews often claim they work just as well as the real thing. But I 100% absolutely DO NOT understand why anyone in their right mind would rely on them. Unlike companies like Lifestraw, Katadyn, Sawyer and MSR, these unknown companies are not staking their reputations on the quality/efficacy of their products. And they never seem to have any documented certification or independent testing results to back up their claims.

More to the point, if you buy and use these products, you will never truly know if they're working as promised (unless you get sick and die, of course). Conclusively proving a negative is one of the most difficult things to do. So not getting sick after using them tells you very little about whether they actually protected you from contaminated water, or if the water wasn't badly contaminated in the first place, or if you just got lucky.

I'm all about saving money and am not at all wedded to brand names for a lot of product types. But off brand filters? I think they're a bone-headed idea and a false economy.
You get what you pay for - and too often, far less than what you think you are buying.

Sawyer makes filters for the medical business - dialysis to be specific. They must always meet certain standards - which are regularly tested by more than one outfit (Feds, independent and internal testing) . Yet their best filter is not that costly. A bit over $20 USD for clean water is a bargain.

As a matter of course, I will not knowingly buy from Chinese-sourced companies.

The same goes for foods - ODF (MT House) is FDA/EPA/USDA and ISO 9000/9001 certified - so, yeah, that Chow is safe to eat and will store for a long time. MH checks their products via 3rd party testing - in addition to their own internal testing. Their Chow isn't cheap - but I'm willing to pay the bit more knowing I get a quality product.
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Re: Water treatment options

Post by TacAir » Sat Feb 15, 2020 2:32 pm

MacWa77ace wrote:
Thu Feb 13, 2020 2:12 pm
TacAir wrote:
Sat Jan 11, 2020 2:04 pm


"Without the taste of water, cool water. Old Dan and I with throats burned dry. And souls that cry for water. Cool, clear, water." Sons of the Pioneers.
Speak of the Devil. Marty Robbin's version in Gunfighter Ballads track 2 is where i first heard it. Originally vinyl then Converted to cassette, which for some reason i have here in my desk drawer right now. [Side 2 is 'The Monkeys' on that cassette LOL]

Image

Image

DESALINIZATION DIY system build info
https://waterfilteronly.com/portable-desalination/

Calcium hypochlorite question

I mainly have 1 gallon and 5 gallon containers so i'm doing math conversion to 1 gallon from 2 and 12.5 per your examples.

Is one level teaspoon then equal to 1/8 oz [as opposed to heaping = 1/4 oz] which 1/8 oz would be the appropriate dry amount of Ca(OCl)2 for 1 gallon?

Then 1 oz of that solution per 1 gallon of water to be treated would be the correct number?

is my math correct? I usually have a lot of calcium hypochlorite around so that's why I'm asking.


And separate question regarding technique:
If you can't smell the chlorine after treating the water, does that mean that there isn't any free chlorine left after treatment and that it was all used up to kill the bacteria? And maybe not all the bacteria was killed.
So after 2 doses and you still can't smell it, does that means the water is too contaminated to be treated by chlorine?
Why can't you keep adding chlorine?
Does that mean that the water source is no good at all then, and we should find another source? Whats the detail on this?
Part 1 - the maths.
To reiterate - this data is from - The US EPA guidelines --(http://water.epa.gov/aboutow/ogwdw/uplo ... r-2006.pdf)

1/8 OZ is 3/4 of a teaspoon - which you add to one gallon of water. This is 70% (high-test granular calcium hypochlorite) - so a level teaspoon is good - slightly more than required. This now becomes the STOCK solution.

This, in turn, you will add the STOCK chlorine solution to your untreated water in the

ratio of one part of chlorine solution to each 100 parts of water to be treated.

Since 1 gallon of water is 128 fluid oz - so .128 oz is a 1/4 tablespoon. All you need is a tablespoon and a teaspoon and a pair of gallon jugs - both measuring spoons should be plastic & not aluminum.

Since you used a level teaspoon of 70% HTH - there is a margin here on the plus side.

This was covered here on ZS - in depth, in 2011 (viewtopic.php?t=88480)
and in 2010 - viewtopic.php?f=92&t=74470&p=1647642&hi ... k#p1647642

As for the smell test - that is what the EPA calls out.

When I post/publish stuff like this, I always source it back to a definitive authority. Call it CYA if you want, but is is my A that needs to be covered.... I do the same for my fiction, because there are people silly enough to believe text marketed as fiction - is fact.

OK?
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Re: Water treatment options

Post by Micon » Wed Sep 09, 2020 8:32 am

Apologies to all for necro-ing an old thread. I have been hunting for an answer and this was the closest thing I could find.

Reading up on using pool shock to make chlorine to purify water, my info says you should make sure to use a product that is 100% calcium hypochlorite, (so you dont get a bunch of other stuff you might not want in your water!). I haven't seen any product at all that is above around 75%.

I have multiple other ways of purifying water, but the allure of stockpiling a little bit of calcium hypochlorite is too great. It is great for space saving and the sheer amount of water it can purify.

Anyone have a brand, source, or any suggestions on what to buy?

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Re: Water treatment options

Post by EBuff75 » Wed Sep 09, 2020 10:52 am


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Re: Water treatment options

Post by raptor2 » Wed Sep 09, 2020 11:05 am

There is a great thread in the Hall of Fame on this subject.
http://zombiehunters.org/forum/viewtopi ... 89&t=53446
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Re: Water treatment options

Post by Micon » Wed Sep 09, 2020 11:50 am

Ah, I was looking for "pool shock 100% ..." so I didnt get to the scientific and industrial section.

Looks like lotsa info on that other thread, I'll have to dig in to see if you really DO need the 100% stuff, or the 'lesser' (and cheaper) stuff is ok.

Thanks all!

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Re: Water treatment options

Post by raptor2 » Wed Sep 09, 2020 12:19 pm

Pool shock @ 73% levels will work well. Shop around for end of the season pool chemical sales.

https://smile.amazon.com/DryTec-Hypochl ... PS04C149RA

However be sure to look at the ingredients and avoid any with algaecide, stabilizers and flocculents.
Like these:
https://smile.amazon.com/Pool-Essential ... den&sr=1-6

You want the just Calcium Hypochlorite at highest concentration per $ with nothing else in it.
Compare the cost per % by ($ / % = cost per unit).

You should also consider a pool test kit to test the drinking water to ensure it is properly chlorinated.
Duco Ergo Sum


raptor2 is the new profile name for raptor.
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